OBJECTIVE: We tried to evaluate the effects of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) on the nerve conductions of the arms in hemodialyzed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). METHOD: Subjects were 22 patients with AVF in patients with CRF and 10 controls without AVF in patients with CRF. We studied nerve conductions, and compared the findings in the arms with fistula and without fistula, and the arms in controls. RESULTS: In ulnar motor nerve conduction study, the amplitude in fistula side was lower than non-fistula side, but the conduction velocity in non-fistula side was lower than fistula side. In radial motor nerve conduction study, the distallatency in non-fistula side was more delayed than that in fistula side. There were no statistical significancies between fistula side and non-fistula side in the other nerve conduction study parameters in arms. And there was no statistically different incidences of carpal tunnel syndrome in both sides. Comparing with controls, conduction velocities of ulnar and radial motor nerves and peak latencies of ulnar and radial sensory nerves were more delayed in both sides. CONCLUSION: There were no significant local effects of arteriovenous fistula on nerve conductions in patients with chronic renal failure.