OBJECTIVE: To identify the location and formation of the sural nerve and its contributing nerves. METHOD: Fourteen lower limbs of 7 adult cadavers were anatomically dissected. The location and formation of the sural nerve (SN) in relation to the medial sural cutaneous nerve (MSCN) and the lateral sural cutaneous nerve (LSCN) were investigated. The length and diameter of the SN and contributing nerves were measured and the differences of the results were analyzed. RESULTS: Twelve SNs were formed by the union of the MSCNs and LSCNs, and 2 SNs were direct extensions of the MSCNs. The point of formation of the SN by union of the MSCN and LSCN was found in the middle third of the legs in 66.7% of SNs examined. The union sites of the SNs were located at 40.58+/-13.97% of the length of lower leg from the tip of lateral malleolus and 55.84+/-6.48% of the calf width from the medial border of the calf. There were significant statistical differences of diameter among nerves (p<0.05) and no significant difference of length between MSCN and LSCN. CONCLUSION: The results of this cadaveric study would increase the accuracy of the sural nerve conduction study and provide the locational information for precise surgical approach.