OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and contributing factor of musculoskeletal pain in preadolescent children. METHOD: Four hundreds and four primary school students without history of trauma or serious medical conditions were investigated. Self-reported questionnaire and physical examination were done. RESULTS: One-week and 1-year overall pain prevalence were 25.9% and 33.7%, respectively. Prevalence of wide spread pain (WSP) was 7.2% and that of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) was 7.9%. Prevalence of overall pain and MPS was higher in the 6th grade students than the 4th grade. WSP was more frequent in girls than boys. Joint hypermobility, physical fitness, body mass index and life style including computer use, regular exercise and satisfaction to desk-chair did not affect pain prevalence. CONCLUSION: Musculoskeletal pain was common in preadolescent children. Age and sex rather than physical state or life style seem to be the contributing factors to pain prevalence.