OBJECTIVE: To compare the change of oxygen consumption and heart rate between walking and running at the same condition of treadmill in healthy male college students. METHOD: Twenty healthy male college students completed steady-state treadmill test at 3 mph and 5 mph, separately, by walking and running. During the each 6 minutes treadmill test, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (H.R), oxygen consumption ratio of maximal oxygen consumption (% VO2max), and heart rate ratio of maximal heart rate (% HR) were measured each minute. RESULTS: The showed that mean heart rate were 123.40+/-4.62 beats/min and oxygen consumption were 12.84+/-1.94 ml/kg/min, in 3 mph walking. The mean heart rate were 139.90+/-6.80 beats/min and oxygen consumption were 16.51+/-1.78 ml/kg/min in 5 mph walking. The running showed that mean heart rate were 187.55+/-6.74 beats/min and oxygen consumption were 26.45+/-3.11 ml/kg/min in 3 mph walking. The mean heart rate were 168.45+/-13.34 beats/min and oxygen consumption were 21.05+/-2.00 ml/kg/min in 5 mph walking. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in mean heart rate, VO2 between the 3 mph walking and running, the 5 mph walking and running. CONCLUSION: We concluded that 3 mph walking and running and 5 mph running were an effective exercise to promote health in healthy college students.