BACKGROUND: The safety of plasma derivatives has been reinforced since 1980s by variable pathogen inactivation or elimination techniques. Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) for the source plasma has also been implemented worldwide. Recently nanofiltration has been used in some country for ensuring safety of plasma derivatives to eliminate non-enveloped viruses such as parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). We evaluated the efficacy of nanofiltration for the elimination of B19V and HAV. METHODS: To verify the efficacy of nanofiltration, we adopted a 20 nm Viresolve NFP (Millipore, USA) in the scaling down (1:1,370) model of the antithrombin III production. As virus stock solutions, we used B19V reactive plasma and porcine parvovirus (PPV) and HAV obtained from cell culture. And 50% tissue culture infectious dose was consumed as infectious dose. The methods used to evaluate the virus-elimination efficacy were reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for B19V and the cytopathic effect calculation after filtration for PPV and HAV. RESULTS: B19V was not detected by RT-PCR in the filtered antithrombin III solutions with initial viral load of 6.42x10(5) IU/mL and 1.42x10(5) IU/mL before filtration. The virus-elimination efficacy of nanofiltration for PPV and HAV were > or =10(3.32) and > or =10(3.31), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Nanofiltration would be an effective method for the elimination of B19V and HAV. It may be used as a substitute for NAT screening of these viruses in source plasma to ensure safety of plasma derivatives in Korea.