PURPOSE: Endoscopic thyroid surgery has been widely used because of the cosmetic advantage and the development of laparoscopic instruments. We have performed endoscopic thyroidectomy by breast approach and gasless transaxillary approach on papillary thyroid microcarcinomas. In this study, we describe these two types of endoscopic procedures with the technique of the method and surgical outcomes. METHODS: From Oct. 1999 to Oct. 2009, each procedure was performed in 162 patients divided into two groups. Breast approach group was in 91 patients and gasless transaxillary approach group was in 71 patients. We compared the results of mean ages, sex ratio, extent of operation, mean hospital stay, operating time, pathologic characteristics and postoperative complications between the breast approach group and gasless transaxillary approach group. RESULTS: Ninety-one cases treated using breast approach, and seventy-one cases treated using gasless transaxillary approach. The operation time was 197.4+/-60.7 minutes (95~350) in breast approach group, and 100.1+/-19.8 minutes (65~140) in gasless transaxillary approach group. Post operative complications are; 2 cases of transient hoarseness, 8 cases of hypocalcemia (including 2 cases of permanent hypocalcemia), 2 cases of chest wall discomfort in breast approach group, and 1 case of transient hoarseness, 2 cases of transient hypocalcemia, 1 case of postoperative bleeding in gasless axillary approach group. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic thyroidectomy is a safe and technically feasible alternative to conventional thyroidectomy in patients with benign and highly selected malignant disease. We expect it can increase the extent of surgery.