PURPOSE: Basiliximab has become widely used in clinical practice for initial immunosuppression in renal transplantation cases, to reduce the incidence of acute rejection without adverse events. Herein, we report the early outcomes of renal transplantation using basiliximab at a single center. METHODS: This retrospective study included 148 renal allograft recipients at a single center. All patients were followed for longer than 1 year after transplantation, and treated with a calcineurin inhibitor and steroids for maintenance immunosuppression. The use of basiliximab and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was optional. We compared the incidence of episodes of acute graft rejection in kidney recipients who were treated with basiliximab as an initial immunosuppressive therapy with those who were treated without basiliximab. RESULTS: Basiliximab was used for initial immunosuppression in 58 patients. Patients maintained immunosuppression with triple (n=69) or double (n=79) regimens including a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine A (n=111) or tacrolimus (n=37)) and methylprednisolone with or without MMF. Thirty-six (24.3%) patients had a rejection episode within 1 year after transplantation and twenty-six (17.6%) patients had an episode of infection. The patients who were treated with basiliximab had fewer rejection episodes (n=11, 18.9%) within the first year after transplantation than the patients who did not take basiliximab (n=25, 27.7%); this difference was not statistically significant. (P=0.245). However, basiliximab significantly affected the number of rejection episodes in the double regimen group (P=0.006), but not the number of rejections in the triple regimen group (P=0.432) and did not affect the number of infection episodes in both groups (P value of double, triple=0.291, 0.772) within one year after transplantation. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that basiliximab might be more useful for graft recipients who are treated with double immunosuppression with a calcineurin inhibitor and steroid than for the recipients with triple immunosuppression including MMF.