PURPOSE: Pancreaticoduodenectomy for mass-like lesions that are suspicious of malignancy sometimes reveals only nonneoplastic disease, especially in those cases where adequate tissues for biopsy are unavailable. In this study, we evaluated the outcomes and quality of life (QOL) after pancreaticoduodenectomy for treating nonneoplastic disease. METHODS: The clinical data of 28 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for nonneoplatic disease and trauma from Jan. 1992 to Feb. 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. The QOL was evaluated using the FACT-Hep questionnaire. The patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder disease were utilized as the control group. RESULTS: 13.8% (28/203) of all the pancreaticoduodenectomized patients had nonneoplatic disease and trauma. Male patients were predominant (25/28) and all the trauma patients were male. The mean age was 48 (23~72) years old. The indications for surgery included lesions suspicious for malignancy (16 cases), pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (1 case), and pancreatoduodenal injury (11 cases). The histologic findings of the nonneoplastic lesions revealed benign inflammation of the bile duct (6 cases), chronic pancreatitis (8 cases), pancreatic pseudocyst (1 case), and fibrosis of the Ampulla of Vater (1 case). No surgical mortality occurred. However, the trauma patients group had higher morbidity (72.7% Vs 23.5%, respectively, P=0.01) and a longer hospital stay (68.0 days Vs 32.6 days, respectively, P=0.02) after surgery compared to the nonneoplastic disease patient group. The QOL of the patient who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for nonneoplatic disease was not different from that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Since pancreaticoduodenectomy for nonneoplastic disease was safe and the QOL of the patients was acceptable, it should be performed more often when malignancies can not be excluded from the differential diagnosis.