BACKGROUND: The use of choledochoscopy has been increasing lately in open and laparoscopic surgery for bile duct stones. Intraoperative choledochoscopy is useful for assessing the biliary trees and stones and for assisting in the removal of bile duct stones. However, large or impacted bile duct stones are difficult to remove using choledochoscopy alone. Application of electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) seems to be suited for these difficult cases. METHODS: Twenty-six (26) patients with bile duct stones were treated with intraoperative cho ledochoscopic EHL to remove stones which could not be retrieved using stone forceps, a basket, saline flushing, or a Fogarty catheter. We divided the 26 cases into two groups: 12 cases of laparoscopic surgery and 14 cases of open surgery. These cases were further divided into two groups: common bile duct stones and intrahepatic duct stones RESULTS: The indications of EHL in laparoscopic surgery for common bile duct stones were large stones in 2 cases and impacted stones in 4 cases. Eighteen (18) patients with intrahepatic duct stones were treated with EHL for impacted stones. Stone clearence rate was 88.5%, and complications occurred in 3 cases (11.5%). One case of a biliary fistula was managed conservatively, and two cases of mucosal bleeding of the bile duct were spontaneously controlled. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative choledochoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy is a safe and effective method for removing large or impacted bile duct stones.