A clinical study was made of 14 cases of distal rectal cancer treated at the Department of Surgery, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College, from January 1995 to April 1996. The patients were treated in a modified Thomas Jefferson program and received high doses of preoperative radiation followed by a sphincter saving procedure. The results are as follows: 1) There were 5 male patients (35.7%) and 9 female patients(64.3%). There was also a large number of patients in their 50s and 60s. 2) The preoperative pathologic type was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. 3) Rectal bleeding was the most common symptom, followed by tenesmus, constipation, anal pain, and a tarry stool. 4) At diagnosis, the Thomas Jefferson (T.J.) system was used for the clinical stage of the patients. The clinical stage of disease showed a preponderance of T.J. stage I (10 patients), T.J stage II, III, and IV occurred in 2, 1, and 1 patient, respectively. 5) The most common site was 0-3 cm above dentate line (8 patients), followed by 4-6 cm (5 patients) and > 7 cm (1 patient) above the dentate line. 6) The complications after preoperative radiation therapy were diarrhea (3 patients) and perianal dermatitis (5 patients). 7) After preoperative radiation therapy, one case showed pathologic complete remission. 8) The procedure was a Transanal Abdominal TransAnal proctosigmoidectomy and coloanal anastomosis (TATA) in 11 patients, a low anterior resection in 1 patient, an abdominal perineal resection in 1 patient, and a colostomy in 1 patient. 9) The pathologic stage showed a preponderance of Duke's B2 and B1; 5 were B2, 4 were B1, 3 were C2, 1 was D, and 1 was O. 10) The postoperative complications after colostomy repair in TATA were frequent defecation, tenesmus, anal pain at defecation, and rectovaginal fistulas which subsided 3 months after colostomy repair.