PURPOSE: Korea started breast cancer screening as part of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 1999. In order to identify under-served groups, we investigated mammography uptake in the National Breast Cancer Screening Program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was participants in the National Breast Cancer Screening Program from 2004 to 2008. We analyzed participation rates by insurance type, age group, and area of residence. RESULTS: Total participation rates for breast cancer screening increased from 18.2% in 2004 to 35.0% in 2008. The participation rate in the group aged 60 to 69 years showed the greatest increase, 21.3%, among the four age groups. Although the screening rate increased continuously, the participation rate of the Medical Aid Program (MAP) group was low compared to the National Health Insurance (NHI) group. Moreover, the increasing trend of mammography uptake in the MAP group was much lower than that of the NHI group. CONCLUSION: The participation rate for breast cancer screening in the NCSP in Korea has increased. However, the participation rate in mammography among MAP recipients is still lower than that of NHI beneficiaries. To increase mammography uptake, it is important to make it available to everyone by ensuring inclusion of all population subgroups.