Umbilical venous catheter (UVC) insertion is a life-saving procedure in neonates who require neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). It is a relatively easy procedure and it is routinely performed on the NICU. This life-saving yet relatively easy procedure, however, can yield some undesirable complications if it is not administered correctly. One of them is a liver abscess. This is a case report of a preterm infant who developed a liver abscess after UVC insertion. We inserted UAC and UVC to a preterm of 35 weeks of gestational age and birth weight of 2,720 g for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, and sepsis. A liver abscess associated with UVC was suspected on screening abdominal sonogram performed for evaluation of infection at 8 days of life. UAC was removed at 5 days of life, however, UVC was still being used. The patient recovered after 4 weeks of antibiotic treatment with prompt elimination of UVC. This case along with a brief review of literature illustrates an importance of proper maintenance and casuistic use of UVC for preterm infants.