BACKGROUND/AIMS: Despite several limitations, percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) has been useful in patients with intrahepatic stone, common bile duct stone or intrahepatic bile duct stricture. We investigated the usefulness and limitation of PTCS, and the recurrence rate after stone removal. METHODS: PTCS was performed on 49 patients with intrahepatic duct (IHD) stones or common bile duct (CBD) stones and 11 patients undergoing biopsy who visited Chung Nam university hospital between 1999 and 2003. RESULTS: Complete removal rate of patients with IHD and CBD stones was 75% (21/28) and 91% (19/21), respectively. Biopsy results by PTCS were in agreement with the final result in 86% (6/7). In patients with IHD stones, the PTCS complication rate was 29% (8/28). Bleeding was most common (21%) but was self limited. In patients with CBD stones, the PTCS complication rate was 9% (2/9). One case was bleeding and the other was death by aggravation of general condition. In patients with IHD stones, the recurrence rate was 29% (5/17). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, PTCS is useful to treat patients with IHD stones, as well as the few patients with failed CBD stone removal by ERCP and diagnosis of stricture in the bile duct.