BACKGROUND/AIMS: Percutaneous transhepatic therapy (PTT) is a non-operative procedure for anastomotic strictures after bilio-enteric anastomosis which cannot be reached via transpapillary route. The aim of this study was to evaluate immediate and long-term results of the PTT using cholangioscopy in patients with benign bilio-enteric anastomotic strictures. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis on 22 patients who had undergone PTT for bilio-enteric anastomotic strictures between October 1994 and March 2001. The follow-up duration was 12 to 79 months after PTT (mean 33.0 months). RESULTS: The initial technical success rate was 100%, and the short-term morbidity and mortality rates were 13.5% and 0%, respectively. However, 9 patients developed recurrent strictures (40.9%) with a mean duration of 16.8 months (range: 2 to 38). The success rate without recurrence was 59.1% and the overall success rate was 77.3% when the procedures were repeated. The long term morbidity rate was 36%, but most morbidities resolved with medical treatments. In 18 patients (81.8%), bile duct stones were combined and successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (overall clearance rate: 94.4%, recurrence rate: 39.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The PTT using cholangioscopy in patients with benign bilio-enteric anastomotic strictures is a safe and effective method, and it appears a minimally invasive alternative to surgery.