Pulmonary tuberculosis is still endemic in Korea, but esophageal tuberculosis, especially primary esophageal tuberculosis, is very rarely seen. A 76-year-old male is presented dysphagia. The clinical presentation, barium swallow study, and chest CT were suggestive of carcinoma of the esophagus. Findings that can suggest the diagnosis are enlarged lymph nodes, ulceration, and luminal narrowing. The major differential diagnosis was primary esophageal tuberculosis. This was not excluded on biopsy obtained at endoscopy. Operation was done for severe dysphagia and exclusion of malignancy. The patient was finally diagnosed as primary esophageal tuberculosis.