Filiform polyposis(FP), an unusual form of inflammatory polyposis, has been recently designated to a lesion characterized by multiple, long slender, finger-like projections of mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. We present 5 cases of FP, of which two were associated with irritable bowel syndrome, two with advanced colon carcinoma, and one with active ileotyphlitis(Behcet's disease). The polyps ranged from 1.0 cm to 3 cm; they were either isolated or aggregated, and their numbers were up to 100. The common microscopic feature was filiform polyps which consisted of central submucosal core covered by intact or minimally inflamed intestinal mucosa, comparable with that in reparative processes and formation of inflammatory(redundant) pseudopolyps. We conclude that awareness of FP in non-inflammatory bowel disease may promote the endoscopists to search its underlying disease and prevent unnecessary surgical procedure. Behcets enterocolitis in the ileocecal junction seems an additional preceding disorder of a localized form of FP.