The urinalysis is an essential part of the diagnostic work-up for kidney disease and other renal system disorders. The dipstick test allows rapid and simultaneous chemical analyses of urine, including factors such as pH, specific gravity, protein, glucose, ketones, occult blood, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrite, and leukocyteesterase. The chemical reactions on dipstick are complicated and can be affected by oxidizing, reducing, and discoloring substances in the urine. Therefore, false positive and false negative results are common in dipstick testing. To obtain reliable results with the dipstick, it is necessary to collect urine cleanly and examine the urine carefully. It is mandatory to clearly understand the principles of dipstick testing to evaluate abnormal findings. If the urine dipstick results suggest hematuria, proteinuria, or urinary tract infection, microscopy of the urine should be performed to confirm the findings.