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J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol. 2013 Oct;17(2):101-109. Korean. Original Article.
Kim SY , Kim MJ , Lee JH , Kim KS , Park YS .
Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, Children's Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

PURPOSE: Pediatric urolithiasis is uncommon in children but is a cause of significant morbidity and damage to the kidney. Although much information on adult urolithiasis is available in the literature, large studies on the pediatric population are still scarce. In this report, we review our experience with pediatric urolithiasis over 22 years at a tertiary referral center. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children with newly diagnosed urolithiasis between January 1991 and May 2013. We assessed the age, sex, family history, initial symptoms, location of stones, underlying cause, stone analysis, treatment, and recurrence among the patients. RESULTS: In total, 137 patients (96 male, 41 female) were assessed. The age range was 0-17 years (mean age, 6.0 years). Forty-three (31%) children were aged <1 year, and 37% (16/43) had a history of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Thirteen patients (9.5%) had a family history of stones. The most common symptoms at presentation among the patients were gross hematuria (56/137, 41%) and flank or abdominal pain (46/137, 34%). The stones were located in the kidney (85/137, 62%), ureter (29/137, 21%), bladder (2/137, 1.4%), and multiple locations (20/137, 15 %). Congenital abnormalities of the genitourinary (G-U) tract, with or without metabolic abnormality, or urinary tract infection (UTI) was detected in 26 children (19%). Ninety-one patients (66%) underwent metabolic examination, and 38% of these patients exhibited an abnormality. UTI, with or without abnormalities of the G-U tract, or metabolic abnormality was detected in 26 children (19%). Of the 35 stones analyzed, the majority were calcium stones (20/35, 57%), followed by infected stones (5/35, 14%), uric acid stones (4/35, 11%), carbonate apatite stones (3/35, 7%), cystine stones (2/35, 6%), and phosphate stones (1/35, 3%). Five patients (4%) required open procedures, with or without non-open procedures, whereas 77 patients (56%) were managed conservatively; the remaining 55 patients (40%) received some other form of intervention. Eighteen patients (13%) had stone recurrence during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric urolithiasis is commonly associated with abnormalities of the G-U tract and/or metabolic disorders and/or UTI. Half of the patients will pass their stones spontaneously, and all the techniques of minimally invasive surgery are applicable in the treatment of children with stones. As the recurrence rates are high among this population, long-term follow-up is recommended and the complete clearance of stones is important.

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