PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) according to the timing of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in infantile urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: The data of 134 infants (1-12 months) with renal cortical defect in 99mTc-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scan with a diagnosis of UTI in two hospitals from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The VCUG was performed after 2 weeks from the diagnosis of UTI in Group I (n=68), and the VCUG was performed within 2 weeks from the diagnosis of UTI in Group II (n=66). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in the duration of fever, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein levels, and abnormalities in ultrasonography (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the prevelence of VUR, bilateral VUR, and severe VUR. VCUG-induced UTI was detected 16 (23.5%) of patients in whom the procedure was performed 2 weeks after the diagnosis, and none of VCUG-induced UTI occurred in those in whom the procedure was performed 2 weeks within the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the prevalence of VUR according to the timing of VCUG did not differ between the two groups in infantile UTI with renal cortical defect in DMSA scan. We also found that performing VCUG with antibiotics can decrease risk of VCUG-induced UTI.