A case of primary non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina is reported occurring in a 65-year-old woman without exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero. The adenocarcinoma did not appear to be associated with vaginal adenosis. It lacked clear cell component and interestingly composed of columnar epithelial cells of endocervical-type. Cytologically round to oval nuclei revealed one or more small nucleoli and fine granular chromatin pattern. Cytoplasm was plump, faintly basophilic and homogeneously stained. Histologically well differentiated columnar epithelial cells were arranged in trabecular pattern mainly, and also occasional glandular lumina and small solid sheets were found. Mitoses were hardly found.