Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2) are the ubiquitous human pathogens responsible for a variety of afflictions. HSV-2 is one of the viruses that were suspected of promoting carcinogenesis in the uterine cervix. Certainly, there is a need for the more sensitive and accurate laboratory techniques for HSV detection. We examined total 80 cases of smears including 17 Tzanck smears of skin and 63 cases of Papanicolaou smears from total 77 patients with clinical impression of herpetic infections, from September, 1985 through August, 1989. Immunohistochemical typings for HSV-1 and HSV-2 were performed together with routine cytologic findings and compared. The results are as follows ; 1) Patients were 9 males and 33 females, and age distribution was between 5 and 71 years 2) Subjective symptoms such as ulceration, vesicle, vaginal discharge, pruritus, and pain were complained in 36 patients and 38 cases were genital herpes. Recurrence was noted in 11 cases. 3) Positive results were obtained in 42 among 80 cases. 4) Both routine cytology and immunohistochemical staining were positive in 13 cases and in 24 cases only immunohistochemical staining were positive. 5 cases were positive only in routine cytologic smears. 5) The cases that immunocytochemical stain had been performed were 37 cases, which were all positive in type 2. Among the above 37 cases, type 1 also were positive in 5 cases. The results show that the immunoperoxidase technique is one of the rapid and reliable method to confirm the herpetic when suspected and that it is particularly useful when the Papanicolaou smear findings are equivocal.