The fluoroscopy-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy has been gaining widespread acceptance as a rapid and effective method to make a pre-operative diagnosis of mediastinal tumors including thymoma, malignant lymphoma, and metastatic carcinoma. Although thymoma is a most common tumor of the superior mediastinum, most cytopathologists are not experted in cytologic diagnosis of this tumor because of limited experience. In order to define the diagnostic cytologic features of thymoma, we have retrospectively reviewed imprinting smears and corresponding tissue sections from four cases of this tumor. All cases revealed an apparent biphasic pattern of epithelial cell clusters and lymphocytes with occasional branching capillary fronds extending from three dimensional epithelial cell clusters. Epithelial cell clusters predominated in one case and lymphocytes in two cases. Mixed epithelial cell and lymphocyte type represented in one of four cases. In the lymphocyte predominant type, the presence of epithelial cell clusters and small mature lymphocytes are helpful features to differentiate from a malignant lymphoma.