PURPOSE: Periventricular leukomalacia(PVL) is the most important cause of cerebral palsy in premature infants. However, there are relatively few studies demonstrating the correlation between ultrasound findings and neurologic outcomes of low-birth-weight infants. To clarify the situation, we analyzed ultrasound findings and neurologic outcomes of many infants with periventricular leukomalacia. METHODS: Our study includes 36 infants with PVL, born in Chungnam National University Hospital, from October 1998 to December 2001. 25 infants with bilateral PVL were compared with 11 infants with asymmetric PVL. For a period of 12 to 48 months, the children were evaluated with neurologic assessments. RESULTS: In infants with bilateral lesions, 88%(22/25) of them had evidence of cerebral palsy. 16 children had spastic quadriplegia and others had spastic diplegia. 7 children with unilateral lesions were free of motor sequele at follow up. Other neurologic handicaps(mental retardation, opthalmologic abnormality or epilepsy) were not related with the symmetry or sizes of the lesions. CONCLUSION: In this study, unfavorable neurologic outcomes of bilateral PVL are confirmed. Therefore, every effort should be made to prevent the development of periventricular leukomalacia as well as not to miss the diagnosis. In addition, if there are any small lesions, regular neurologic assessments and early start of rehabilitation programs should be done.