PURPOSE: The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship between the level of depression and characteristics of headache in elementary school children. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed by one thousand and eleven children (510 boys and 501 girls) of grades 4 to 6 in Gwangju city during the period from June 1 to June 30 1999. The relationship between headaches and depressive trends was investigated with the Kovasc & Beck Children's Depression Inventory modified for Korean. Result : The prevalence of headache was 17.5% (17.1% among males, 18% among girls). The mean depressive scores in the headache group was higher than those in control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The depression scores did not differ significantly depending on sex, and family history of headache. The depression scores did not correlate with the onset, location, severity, frequency, duration, and onset pattern of headache. The mean scores of depression in the dull and tightness pattern (17.46+/-7.18) were significantly higher than those of pulsatile and other patterns. The mean scores of depression in the onset time of occurrence of headache were significantly high before school (24.33+/-5.69), at school (15.66+/-6.32, P<0.05). The mean score of depression in the aura was significantly high "inaudible (22.00+/-9.49)" and in the trigger factors was significantly high weather change (16.18+/-6.85, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on our analysis, there is a correlation between depressive trends and characteristics of headache in elementary school children. So, we suggested that depressive trends should be evaluated in children with headache.