PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to investige the clinical features, natural histories, and results of medical and surgical treatment of NMD in patients who were diagnosed during childhood. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of 57 patients with NMD who were newly diagnosed by MRI or pathologically in epilepsy children since March 1993 to June 2000. RESULTS: These 57 patients with NMD consisted of 26 with cortical dysplasia, 9 with lissencephaly, 7 with polymicrogyria, 6 with schizencephaly, 4 with hemimegalencephaly, 3 with heterotopias, and 2 with double cortex. Clinically, 94.7% of these patients showed seizures, 33.3% with developmental delay, 21.1% mental retardation, 15.8% cerebral palsy, and 7.0% attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Their response to antiepileptic drugs was good to 31 patients (75.6%), moderate to 3 (7.3%), and poor to 7 (17.1%). Twelve patients were completely seizure-free after receiving medication for at least 15 months. Seventeen patients tolerated with monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs. Fourteen patients underwent surgical resection. The results of operation were highly correlated with the complete removal of epileptic focus. Six patients who underwent complete resection were seizure-free after operation. On the other hand, Eight patients who had incomplete resection of the epileptic focus showed poor outcome. CONCLUSION: Most of previous reports suggested that NMD is associated with refractory to medical treatments, and early surgical operation has been recommended. Our study demonstrates remarkably good responses of NMD patients with medical treatment only.