PURPOSE: Refractory status epilepticus refers to patients who do not respond properly to adequate first-line drug treatment such as diazepam, phenytoin, phenobaribital, lorazepam and show longer than 60 minute seizure. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of midazolam given as a continuous infusion in the treatment of status epilepticus in children. METHODS: Midazolam was infused to twelve children with seizures, for whom two time repeated doses of 0.3mg/kg of diazepam, 20mg/kg of phenobarbital, and 20mg/kg of phenytoin failed to bring the episode under control. All patients received a bolus of midazolam(0.15mg/kg) followed by a continuous infusion at 1microgram/kg/min. The dose was increased every 15 min until the episode of seizure was brought under control. Time required to control seizures, infusion rate, and side-effects were monitored. RESULTS: The mean age of the patient population was 6.06 yrs(range 2 months to 16 yrs; 6 females and 6 males). In 11 patients, seizures were controlled in a mean time of 60.1 min(range 15-180 min). The mean infusion rate was 8.5microgram/kg/min(range 1-20). The total treatment duration was 17.6 days(range 1-54 days). One patient who was confirmed to have cortical dysplasia failed to respond. Two of the patients showed respiratory depression and bradycardia. CONCLUSION: Midazolam is an effective and safe drug to control refractory seizures in children with status epilepticus.