To investigate a population-based survey of the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in South Korea, we performed Papanicolaou smears and tests for HPV DNA and anti-HPV antibody detection in 909 sexually active general women (age range; 20-74 years, median 44 years) who were randomly selected residents from S district of Busan City. The presence of DNA of 36 different HPV types was detected by means of a GP 5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR enzyme immunoassay in cervical exfoliated cells, and IgG antibodies against L1 virus-like particles (anti-VLPs) of 5 HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 58 were tested by means of enzyme linked immunoassay. The incidence of cytologic abnormality was 5.2% in Pap smear. The positive rate of HPV DNA was 10.4%, high in young women younger than 35 years old and proportionally increased according to the cytologic grades. The most often found HPV type was HPV 70, followed by HPV 16 and 33, and high-risk HPV types were more frequent in women younger than 35 years old. The most common HPV type in abnormal cytologic smears was HPV 16, followed by HPV 58 and 66. Anti-VLPs was positive in 19.7% and the frequent anti-VLPs type was against HPV 18, followed by HPV 31 and 16. The concordance between the markers for each specific HPV type was noted in 10 women and HPV 16 was the most frequent one. The incidence of multiple HPV infection was 18.9% and that of multiple anti-VLPs antibodies was 31%. Among 103 self-reported virgins, 4.9% had anti-VLP antibodies.