Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lung is rare among extranodal lymphomas. The most common form is low grade B-cell type originated from the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the lung and primary peripheral T cell lymphoma of the lung is extremely rare. We recently experienced a case of fine needle aspiration cytology of primary peripheral T cell lymphoma of the lung in a 39-year-old male patient. The cytologic smears revealed some sheets of reactive epithelial cells, epithelioid histiocytes, and numerous polymorphous population of lymphoid cells composed of small and intermediate sized lymphoid cells and mature lymphocytes. Lymphoid cells were slightly larger than normal mature lymphocytes and showed significant irregularity of nuclear membrane. The internal nuclear structure was marked by chromatin clumping, clear parachromatin areas, and inconspicuous nucleoli. Histopathologically, atypical small lymphocytes infiltrated in the interstitium and alveolar sac. By the immunohistochemical study and molecular biologic study of gene rearrangement, the T cell clonality of atypical lymphoid cells was confirmed.