PURPOSE: Recently, bioceramics have become popular as a substitute graft material for reconstruction of bony defect after trauma or tumor surgery. Among the bioceramic materials, hydroxyapatite(HA) is favored due to its biocompatibility. HA scaffold is composed of the interconnected reticular framework, macropores and micropores. Macropores play an important role in cell migration, nutrients supply and vascular ingrowth. On the other hand, a number of micropores less than 10micrometer form an irregular surface on HA scaffolds, which prevents the osteoblast from adhering and proliferating on the surface of HA scaffold. METHODS: In this study, three different groups were designed for comparison. In the first group(group A), conventional method was used, in which HA pellet was applied without surface pretreatment. The second group (group B) was given a HA pellet that has been coated with crystalline HA solution prior to application. In the third group(group C), the same method was used as the second group, where the pretreated HA pellet was heated(1250degrees C, 1 hour) before application. Osteoblast-like cells(2x10(4)/mL) were scattered onto every pellet, then they were incubated in 5% CO2 incubator at 37degrees C for twelve days. During the first three days, osteoblast cells were counted using the hemocytometer daily. ALP activity was measured on the 3, 6, 9 and 12 culture days using the spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Under SEM, group A showed a surface with numerous micropores, and group B revealed more rough crystal surface. Group C revealed a fused crystal appearance and flattened smooth surface. In proliferation and ALP activity of osteoblast cells, group C showed better results compared to group B. Group A which lacks pretreatment of the surface showed less osteoblast proliferation and ALP activity than group C, but showed better results than group B. CONCLUSION: We found that crystallized HA with heat treatment method enhances the osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation on the surface of HA pellets.