PURPOSE: Collagen is the principal structural biomolecule in cartilage extracellular matrix, which makes it a logical target for cartilage engineering. In this study, porous type I collagen scaffolds were cross-linked using dehydrothermal(DHT) treatment and/or 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide(EDC), in the presence and absence of chondroitin-6-sulfate(CS) for cartilage regeneration. METHODS: Cartilage defects were created in the proximal part of the ear of New Zealand rabbits. Four types of scaffolds(n=4) were inserted. The types included DHT cross-linked(Group 1), DHT and EDC cross- linked(Group 2), CS added DHT cross-linked(Group 3), and CS added DHT and EDC cross-linked(Group 4). Histomorphometric analysis and cartilage-specific gene expression of the reconstructed tissues were evaluated respectively 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. RESULTS: The largest quantity of regenerated cartilage was found in DHT cross-linked groups 1 and 3 in the 8th week and then decreased in the 12th week, while calcification increased. Calcification was observed from the 8th week and the area increased in the 12th week. Group 4 was treated with EDC cross-linking and CS, and the matrix did not degrade in the 12th week. Cartilage-specific type II collagen mRNA expression increased with time in all groups. CONCLUSION: CS did not increase chondrogenesis in all groups. EDC cross-linking may prevent chondrocyte infiltration from the perichondrium into the collagen scaffold.