OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the prevalence of asbestos exposure-induced pleural thickening on chest radiograph in repairing shipyard workers. METHODS: A total of 2,114 incumbent and retired workers in a shipyard underwent chest radiograph, questionnaire study, interview, and physical exam from 2005 to 2007. Finally, 1,702 workers were selected and classified into two groups according to asbestos exposure: exposure and non-exposure groups. The characteristics in the exposure group were investigated. RESULTS: The prevalence of pleural thickening on chest radiograph was 5.2 % and 3.1 % in the exposure and non-exposure groups, respectively (p<0.05). In those aged 50 years or above, the prevalence was 17.6 % and 8.7 % in the exposure and non-exposure groups, respectively (p<0.05). The prevalence was 16.5 % and 30.2 % and the odds ratio was 2.34 (95% CI; 1.15-4.77) and 2.95 (95%CI; 1.08-8.07) in the workers with an exposure duration of 20-29 years and more than 30 years, respectively. The prevalence was higher when considering tuberculosis history. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence was increased with increasing exposure duration was more than 20 years. The authors therefore suggest that this group should be followed up periodically by special program and that a longitudinal study with repairing shipyard workers as the cohort should be undertaken.