OBJECTIVES: To analyze the characteristics of malignant occupational lymphohematopoietic diseases compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance that is operated by the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation (KLWC). METHODS: Using the KLWC database, we surveyed 50 cases of malignant occupational lymphohematopoietic diseases that received compensation during the 10 years between 1996 and 2005, inclusive. We analyzed the characteristics of occupational diseases using the KLWC electronic data and the epidemiologic data investigated by the Industrial Safety and Health Institute of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. RESULTS: KLWC approved 50 cases, including 12 deaths (24.0%). Men accounted for 94.0% of the approved cases. The most common age group was 40~49 years of age (36.0%). The most common size of enterprise was larger than 1,000 workers (20.0%). The most common lymphohematopoietic disease was myeloid leukemia (21 cases, 40.0%), followed by lymphoid leukemia and aplastic anemia (7 cases, 14%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (6 cases, 12.0%). The mean working duration was 15.1 years and the most common decade was 10~19 years (48.0%). The mean latency was 15.5 years and the most common decade was 10~19 years (44.0%). The causal hazardous agents were benzene (43 cases, 86.0%), ionizing radiation (4 cases, 8.0%), and chemotherapeutics (1 case, 2.0%). CONCLUSIONS: We were able to elucidate the kinds of occupational malignant lymphohematopoietic diseases and the characteristics of workers through this study. Benzene exposure sources emitted from cokeoven and foundry were very important findings that had not been identified in previous studies. The KLWC compensation received by several cases of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the results for which were not consistently related to benzene exposure, was relevant data to decide the work-relatedness of lymphohematopoietic diseases of workers exposed to benzene.