OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to assess psychosocial distress of lead workers and to examine the relationship between lead exposure indices and psychosocial distress. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional and research subjects were 234 lead workers in primary smelting industry. General characteristics, job characteristics and social support were obtained by self-administered questionnaire and history taking. Psychosocial distress was measured using PWI(Psychosocial Well-being Index), a 45-item self-administered instrument. Blood lead(PbB), zinc protoporphyrin(ZPP), -aminolevulinic acid in urine(ALAU) were selected as indicators of lead exposure. RESULTS: There was significant difference in PWI according to lead exposure level and job characteristics. The results of correlation analysis showed that PWI was significantly correlated with PbB(r=0.203, P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Our results supported the association between lead exposure and psychosocial distress. The inclusion of psychosocial distress measurement as a special health examination for lead workers was highly recommended for the effective health management.