PURPOSE: Flavopiridol enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis of cancer cells in our previous in vitro study. The purpose of this study was to assess if flavopiridol could enhance the radioresponse of mouse mammary tumors in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Balb/c mice bearing EMT-6 murine mammary carcinoma were treated with flavopiridol only, radiation only, or both for 7 days. Flavopiridol was administered 2.5 mg/kg twice a day intraperitoneally (IP). Radiation was delivered at a 4 Gy/fraction at 24-h intervals for a total dose of 28 Gy. Tumor volume was measured and compared among the different treatment groups to evaluate the in vivo radiosensitizing effect of flavopiridol. Tumors were removed from the mice 20 days after treatment, and TUNEL and Immunohistochemical stainings were performed. RESULTS: Significant tumor growth delay was observed in the radiation only and combined treatment groups, when compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the tumor growth curves of the control and flavopiridol only group or between the radiation only and combination treatment group. Apoptotic cells of different treatment groups were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-medicated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The expressions of Ku70 in tumor tissues from the different groups were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Similarly, no significant difference was found between the apoptotic rate or Ku70 expression among the different treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Flavopiridol did not show evidence of enhancing the radioresponse of mouse mammary tumors in this study.