PURPOSE: To assess the tolerance, complete response rate, bladder preservation rate and survival rate in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer treated with selective bladder preservation protocol. METHOD AND MATERIALS: From October 1990 to June 1998, twenty six patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer (clinical stage T2-4, N0-3, M0) were enrolled for the treatment protocol of bladder preservation. They were treated with maximal TURBT (transurethral resection of bladder tumor) and 2 cycles of MCV chemotherapy (methotrexate, crisplatin, and vinblastine) followed by 39.6~45 Gy pelvic irradiation with concomitant cisplatin. After complete urologic evaluation (biopsy or cytology), the patients who achieved complete response were planed for bladder preservation treatment and treated with consolidation cisplatin and radiotherapy (19.8 Gy). The patients who had incomplete response were planed to immediate radical cystectomy. If they refused radical cystectomy, they were treated either with TURBT followed by MCV or cisplatin chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The median follow-up duration is 49.5 months. RESULT: The patients with stage T2-3a and T3b-4a underwent complete removal of tumor or gross tumor removal by TURBT, respectively. Twenty one out of 26 patients (81%) successfully completed the protocol of the planned chemo-radiotherapy. Seven patients had documented complete response. Six of them were treated with additional consolidation cisplatin and radiotherapy. One patient was treated with 2 cycles of MCV chemotherapy due to refusal of chemo-radiotherapy. Five of 7 complete responders had functioning tumor-free bladder. Fourteen patients of incomplete responders were further treated with one of the followings : radical cystectomy (1 patient), or TURBT and 2 cycles of MCV chemotherapy (3 patients), or cisplatin and radiotherapy (10 patients). Thirteen patients of them were not treated with planned radical cystectomy due to patients' refusal (9 patients) or underlying medical problems (4 patients). Among twenty one patients, 12 patients (58%) were alive with their preserved bladder, 8 patients died with the disease, 1 patient died of intercurrent disease. The 5 years actuarial survival rates according to CR and PR after MCV chemotherapy and cisplatin chemoradiotherapy were 80% and 14%, respectively (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: In selected patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer, the bladder preservation could be achieved by MCV chemotherapy and cisplatin chemo-radiotherapy. All patients tolerated well this bladder preservation protoco. The availability of complete TURBT and the responsibility of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy were important predictors for bladder preservation and survival. The patients who had not achieved complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy should be immediate radical cystectomy. A randomized prospective trial might be essential to determine more accurate indications between cystectomy or bladder preservation.