PURPOSE: Primary colonic lymphomas are very rare disorders and the most common location of a colonic lymphoma is the cecum. However, the prognosis for patients with a primary cecal lymphoma is not well understood clear. This study was undertaken to assess the prognosis for patients with a primary cecal lymphoma. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of our patients, who were categorized into two groups, cecal lymphoma (10 cases) and non-cecal lymphoma (10 cases), was performed from January 1985 to December 2001. The prognostic factors were analyzed. RESULTS: The most common presenting symptoms and signs of cecal lymphomas were abdominal pain (80.0%), nausea/ vomiting (80.0%), and abdominal mass (40.0%). The preoperative biopsy- proven diagnostic rate of cecal lymphoma was 10.0%. The mean size of cecal lymphomas was significantly smaller than that of non-cecal lymphomas (6.2 cm vs. 10.0 cm). Histologically, 9 (90.0%) of the primary cecal lymphomas were classified as intermediate-grade lymphoas, and 1 (10.0%) as a high-grade lymphoma. three (30.0%) of the cecal lymphomas were Stage IE, 5 (50.0%) were Stage IIE1, and 2 (20.0%) were Stage IVE. Tumor resection and chemotherapy was used for 8 (80.0%) of the cecal lymphomas. Two regimens of chemotherapy were used: CHEP-Bleo (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and epirubicin, prednisone, and bleomycin) and COP-BLAM (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, bleomycin, doxorubicin, procarbazine). The median survival time for patients with a cecal lymphoma was 56 months, but that survival time was not significantly different from the survival time for patients with non-cecal lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis for patients with a primary cecal lymphoma appears to be similar to that for patients with a non-cecal lymphoma. However, the number cases in our study was very small, the more cases are needed to establish a general prognosis for patients with a primary cecal lymphoma.