PURPOSE: Diverticular disease of the cecum and ascending colon is a relatively uncommon disease, and is often difficult to diagnose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features of patients who underwent surgical treatment for cecal diverticulitis. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted between January 1998 and December 2002 of 44 patients treated at the Department of Surgery, Soonchunghyang Gumi Hospital. RESULTS: All patients presented with right lower quadrant pain and tenderness. Preoperatively, 34 patients were diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The surgical procedures for cecal diverticulitis were an appendectomy only (5 cases), a diverticulectomy with appendectomy (31 cases), and a right hemicolectomy (8 cases). Postoperative complications were found in 17 cases: wound infection (13 cases), and partial intestinal obstruction (2 cases). CONCLUSIONS: When cecal diverticulitis is found at the time of an operation, surgical management is a safe treatment with low morbidity and a low recurrence rate. A diverticulectomy with appendectomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of cecal diverticulitis if there is no evidence of free perforation or abscess formation. If the diverticulitis is complicated, undistinguishable from a malignancy, a resection (ileocecal resection, right hemicolectomy) should be considered for the surgical treatment.