PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to compare the early postoperative results and the long-term outcome of restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS:Thirty patients that underwent IPAA for either FAP (14 patients) or UC (16 patients) at Kyung-Hee University Hospital between January 1987 and December 1999 were studied retrospectively. Either handsewn or stapled anastomosis technique was used in IPAA. Most patients (12 patients in FAP, 16 patients in UC) had a two-stage operation with temporary diverting loop ileostomy and two patients with FAP had a one-stage operation without temporary ileostomy. RESULTS:One patient in the UC group died from sepsis after operation (n=16, 6.25%), but no patients in the FAP group died. Overall operative complications appeared in two patients (14.3%) and four patients (25%) with FAP and UC, respectively. At follow-up (mean, 47.3 months), pouchitis was developed in four patients with UC, but no patients with FAP. The mean daytime stool frequency was 4.5 stools per day in FAP patients and 5.8 stools per day in UC patients (P=0.031), but night-time stool frequency was similar between two groups (1.2 and 1.4 in FAP and UC, respectively; P>0.05). Daytime fecal incontinence was noticed in two patients (14.3%) with FAP and four patients (26.7%) with UC. Night-time fecal incontinence was noticed in three patients (21.4%) with FAP and six patients (40.0%) with UC. CONCLUSIONS:FAP patients tolerated the operation better and had less long-term disability than did UC patients. This suggested that the long-term outcome of IPAA procedure may depend on the primary disease rather than the procedure itself.