Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. CVD is a clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease characterized by a long asymptomatic phase. Progression of atherosclerosis can lead to the occurrence of acute cardiovascular events. Atherosclerosis can be identified during the subclinical phase by several methods, including using biomarkers, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, flow-mediated dilation, carotid ultrasound, and calcium score. The appropriate criteria for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who should undergo CVD screening and therapeutic intervention remain controversial. Non-invasive methods, such as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, may aid in risk stratification and the design of tailored therapies for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.