BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening rates between female cancer survivors and a population without cancer to identify factors related to cervical and breast cancer screening in cancer survivors. METHODS: We included 17,765 adults (738 cancer survivors and 17,027 individuals without cancer) in this study, all of whom who were 30 years of age or older and participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys from 2007–2012. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to cervical and breast cancer screening uptake in female cancer survivors. RESULTS: The screening rate for breast cancer was 56.6%, which was higher than that in the non-cancer control group (P=0.001). The screening rate for cervical cancer was 51.4%, which was not different from that of the non-cancer control group. In terms of breast cancer screening, cancer survivors showed no significant difference in the rate of screening 5 years after their cancer diagnosis. However, cervical cancer survivors were less likely to have cervical cancer screening 10 years after their cancer diagnosis. There was no significant association between cancer screening and sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: Breast and cervical cancer screening rates in Korean female cancer survivors are low. Secondary primary cancer screening of female cancer survivors needs to be planned in a comprehensive manner, with the consideration of influences beyond sociodemographic factors.