J Korean Diet Assoc.  2022 Nov;28(4):247-266. 10.14373/JKDA.2022.28.4.247.

Correlation of Health-Related Habits, Eating Habits, and Nutrients Intakes According to Depression in Elderly Men and Women : Analysis of the 2016∼ 2018 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • 1Dept. of Food Service and Nutrition, Kaya University, Gimhae 50830, Korea


This study examines the sociodemographic and anthropometric data, health-related and dietary habits, and nutrient intakes according to depression levels in men and women aged over 65 years. A total of 2,938 subjects were analyzed from the 2016∼2018 Korean National Health and Examination Survey. Statistical analyses for complex samples were applied using the SPSS software package. Based on the health questionnaire-9, the subjects were applied into two groups. The percentage of depression in women was significantly higher than in men (P<0.001). The factors associated with men’s depression were marital status (P<0.05), household income (P<0.001), occupation (P<0.01), and body mass index (P<0.01). Women’s depression was found to be significantly associated with household income (P<0.001), education level (P<0.01), basic living allowance (P<0.001), and body weight status (P<0.01). Perceived health status, stress level, quality of life, not feeling very well for the last two weeks, and activity restriction (P<0.001, respectively) were significant health-related habits associated with depression in both sexes. Diabetes (P<0.05) amongst men and hypertriglyceridemia (P<0.01) in women were significant factors associated with depression. Frequency of meals and eating meals together were significant dietary habits associated with depression by sex. Significant associations between improper nutrient intake and depression were also derived for both sexes; 7 nutrients were identified in men and 10 in women. Our results indicate that different factors are associated with depression in the elderly based on sex. Hence, sex-based health promotion programs are required to prevent the onset of depression among the elderly.


depression; elderly; Korean National Health and Examination Survey; patient health questionnaire-9; nutrient intake; sex
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