Arch Craniofac Surg.  2022 Oct;23(5):232-236. 10.7181/acfs.2022.00850.

Late reconstruction of post-traumatic enophthalmos and hypoglobus using three-dimensional implants: a case series

  • 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Institute for Human Tissue Restoration, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea


Post-traumatic enophthalmos and hypoglobus are common sequelae of facial bone fractures, even after reduction surgery. They are associated with functional and esthetic issues, which may lower the quality of life. These deformities frequently present late, and adequate correction is difficult. We report three cases of late inferior orbital rim reconstructions with three-dimensional printed implants to help resolve these problems. The average duration between the traumatic event and surgery was 3 years and 4 months. One patient was treated with a completely absorbable implant and exhibited satisfactory results until the implant started to biodegrade at 1 year and 9 months after surgery. Two patients were treated with a permanent implant and demonstrated satisfactory results. However, longer follow-up periods were needed. There were no complications such as infection, diplopia, or restriction of ocular motion and the patients were satisfied with the esthetic results.


Case reports; Enophthalmos; Implant; Reconstructive surgical procedures
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