Clin Exp Vaccine Res.  2022 Jan;11(1):30-42. 10.7774/cevr.2022.11.1.30.

Preparation and field study of combined vaccine against Clostridium perfringens type A and bovine viral diarrhea virus in camels

  • 1Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
  • 2Department of Rinder Pest like Diseases, Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
  • 3Anaerobic Bacterial Vaccine Research Department, Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
  • 4Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Institute, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
  • 5Animal Health Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
  • 6Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT), Cairo, Egypt


The key objective of this study was to formulate a local combined inactivated gel adjuvanted vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1, BVDV-2 viruses and Clostridium perfringens type A toxoid. The study evaluated its ability to enhance protective active immune response in camels’ calves against these infectious pathogens under field conditions.
Materials and Methods
The local BVDV cytopathic strains and a local strain of toxigenic C. perfringens type A were used in vaccines formulation. Vaccines A and B were monovalent vaccines against C. perfringens and both strains of BVDVs, respectively. While the vaccine C was the combined vaccine used against the three agents. All vaccines were adjuvanted with Montanide gel. Sterility, safety, and potency tests were applied on the formulated vaccines. Virus neutralization and toxin anti-toxin neutralization tests were used to evaluate the immune responses.
Both monovalent (vaccine A) and combined vaccines (vaccine C) showed a protective level (4.5 and 3 IU/mL, respectively) against C. perfringens from the 2nd-week post-vaccination. The titer declined to 3 and 2 IU/mL, respectively at the 5th-month post-vaccination. The titer against BVDV, the monovalent vaccine (vaccine B) reached the beak (1.95 IU/mL) at the 1st-month post-vaccination and lasted till 6th-month post-vaccination (0.92 and 0.94 IU/mL) for BVDV-1a and BVDV-2, respectively.
Vaccination of camels with the combined vaccine adjuvanted by Montanide gel containing C. perfringens type A toxoid and BVDV strains with 6-month intervals is recommended to protect camels safely and efficiently against such infections in the field.


Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxin; Bovine viral diarrhea viruses; Inactivated vaccines; Montanide gel; Camelidae
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