J Vet Sci.  2022 May;23(3):e48. 10.4142/jvs.21292.

Antibacterial activity of enrofloxacin loaded gelatin-sodium alginate composite nanogels against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants

Affiliations
  • 1Engineering Laboratory for Tarim Animal Diseases Diagnosis and Control, College of Animal Science, Tarim University, Alar 843300, China
  • 2Key Laboratory of Tarim Animal Husbandry & Science Technology of Xinjiang Production & Construction Corps, Alar 843300, China
  • 3Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor, Toukh 13736, Egypt

Abstract

Background
The poor intracellular concentration of enrofloxacin might lead to treatment failure of cow mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants (SASCVs).
Objectives
In this study, enrofloxacin composite nanogels were developed to increase the intracellular therapeutic drug concentrations and enhance the efficacy of enrofloxacin against cow mastitis caused by intracellular SASCVs.
Methods
Enrofloxacin composite nanogels were formulated by an electrostatic interaction between gelatin (positive charge) and sodium alginate (SA; negative charge) with the help of CaCl 2 (ionic crosslinkers) and optimized by a single factor test using the particle diameter, zeta potential (ZP), polydispersity index (PDI), loading capacity (LC), and encapsulation efficiency (EE) as indexes. The formation mechanism, structural characteristics, bioadhesion ability, cellular uptake, and the antibacterial activity of the enrofloxacin composite nanogels against intracellular SASCVs strain were studied systematically.
Results
The optimized formulation was comprised of 10 mg/mL (gelatin), 5 mg/mL (SA), and 0.25 mg/mL (CaCl2). The size, LC, EE, PDI, and ZP of the optimized enrofloxacin composite nanogels were 323.2 ± 4.3 nm, 15.4% ± 0.2%, 69.6% ± 1.3%, 0.11 ± 0.02, and −34.4 ± 0.8 mV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the enrofloxacin composite nanogels were spherical with a smooth surface and good particle size distributions. In addition, the enrofloxacin composite nanogels could enhance the bioadhesion capacity of enrofloxacin for the SASCVs strain by adhesive studies. The minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration, and minimum biofilm eradication concentration were 2, 4, 4, and 8 μg/mL, respectively. The killing rate curve had a concentration-dependent bactericidal effect as increasing drug concentrations induced swifter and more radical killing effects.
Conclusions
This study provides a good tendency for developing enrofloxacin composite nanogels for treating cow mastitis caused by intracellular SASCVs and other intracellular bacterial infections.

Keyword

Enrofloxacin; Staphylococcus aureus; Nanogels; sodium alginate; gelatin
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