Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci.  2021 Aug;19(3):545-553. 10.9758/cpn.2021.19.3.545.

Patient Factors Influencing Outpatient Retention in Patients with Affective and Anxiety Disorders: A Retrospective Study

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Severance Hospital, Yonesi University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea


The aim of the present study is to identify the factors that affect retention in outpatients with psychiatric disorders as indicators of treatment adherence, including Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores.
The medical records of 146 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorder for at least 10 years and discharged were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. The subjects were categorized based on the duration of outpatient treatment as < 6 months (L6) or ≥ 6 months (M6) groups and reclassified as < 36 months (L36) and ≥ 36 months (M36) groups. The demographic, clinical, and personality characteristics of the groups were compared.
Patients in M6 and M36 groups were more likely to have a higher educational level compared with those in the L6 and L36 groups, respectively. Patients in the M6 group showed significantly lower hypomania (Ma) scores on the MMPI test than did patients in the L6 group.
The association between high Ma score on the MMPI test and early discontinuation of treatment suggests that impulsivity, hostility, and disinhibition confer higher risk of nonadherence.


Nonadherence; Psychiatric patients; Outpatient retention; MMPI
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