Tissue Eng Regen Med.  2021 Aug;18(4):479-484. 10.1007/s13770-021-00365-w.

Extracellular Vesicles in Regenerative Medicine: Potentials and Challenges

  • 1Research Institute of Hyperbaric Medicine and Science, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do 26426, Republic of Korea
  • 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medical Convergence, Gangneung-si, Gangwon-do 25601, Republic of Korea


The ultimate goal of regenerative medicine is to regain or restore the damaged or lost function of tissues and organs. Several therapeutic strategies are currently being explored to achieve this goal. From the point of view of regenerative medicine, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are exceptionally attractive due to the fact that they can overcome the limitations faced by many cell therapies and can be engineered according to their purpose through various technical modifications. EVs are biological nanoscale vesicles naturally secreted by all forms of living organisms, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and act as vehicles of communication between cells and their surrounding environment. Over the past decade, EVs have emerged as a new therapeutic agent for various diseases and conditions owing to their multifaceted biological functions. This is reflected by the number of publications on this subject found in the Web of Science database, which currently exceeds 12,300, over 85% of which were published within the last decade, demonstrating the increasing global trends of this innovative field. The reviews collected in this special issue provide an overview of the different approaches being explored in the use of EVs for regenerative medicine.


Clinial trials; Commercialization; Extracellular vesicles; Regenerative medicine
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