Korean Circ J.  2021 Aug;51(8):643-655. 10.4070/kcj.2021.0121.

Modifiable Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korea and Japan

  • 1Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan
  • 2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt
  • 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minya, Egypt
  • 6Department of Public Health, Yonsei University Graduate School, Seoul, Korea


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and a major contributor to disability worldwide. Since the majority of cardiovascular events are preventable, identification of modifiable CVD risk factors and implementation of primordial prevention strategies should be a public health priority. In this aspect, the American Heart Association declared a strategic goal to reduce total CVD mortality in the US by 20% within 10 years via eliminating 7 major CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, and poor-quality diet) in 2010, and their strategy has been achieving. However, the applicability of similar metrics to prevent CVD among East Asians requires an in-depth investigation of the modifiable CVD risk factors based on national and regional evidence-based findings. Herein, this review article aims to discuss several modifiable risk factors for CVDs, using epidemiological evidence from cohort studies and nationally representative data of 2 East Asian countries: Korea and Japan.


Risk factor; Modification; Prevention; Cardiovascular disease; Korea; Japan
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