Korean J Radiol.  2021 Aug;22(8):1323-1331. 10.3348/kjr.2020.0984.

Preoperative Assessment of Renal Sinus Invasion by Renal Cell Carcinoma according to Tumor Complexity and Imaging Features in Patients Undergoing Radical Nephrectomy

  • 1Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea


To identify the association between renal tumor complexity and pathologic renal sinus invasion (RSI) and evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography tumor features for predicting RSI in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
Materials and Methods
This retrospective study included 276 consecutive patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for RCC with a size of ≤ 7 cm between January 2014 and October 2017. Tumor complexity and anatomical renal sinus involvement were evaluated using two standardized scoring systems: the radius (R), exophytic or endophytic (E), nearness to collecting system or sinus (N), anterior or posterior (A), and location relative to polar lines (RENAL) nephrometry and preoperative aspects and dimensions used for anatomical classification (PADUA) system. CT-based tumor features, including shape, enhancement pattern, margin at the interface of the renal sinus (smooth vs. non-smooth), and finger-like projection of the mass, were also assessed by two independent radiologists. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify significant predictors of RSI. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV), accuracy of anatomical renal sinus involvement, and tumor features were evaluated.
Eighty-one of 276 patients (29.3%) demonstrated RSI. Among highly complex tumors (RENAL or PADUA score ≥ 10), the frequencies of RSI were 42.4% (39/92) and 38.0% (71/187) using RENAL and PADUA scores, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that a non-smooth margin and the presence of a finger-like projection were significant predictors of RSI. Anatomical renal sinus involvement showed high NPVs (91.7% and 95.2%) but low accuracy (40.2% and 43.1%) for RSI, whereas the presence of a non-smooth margin or finger-like projection demonstrated comparably high NPVs (90.0% and 91.3% for both readers) and improved accuracy (67.0% and 73.9%, respectively).
A non-smooth margin or the presence of a finger-like projection can be used as a preoperative CT-based tumor feature for predicting RSI in patients with RCC.


Renal cell carcinoma; Renal sinus invasion; Staging; Upstaging
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