Clin Mol Hepatol.  2021 Jul;27(3):437-445. 10.3350/cmh.2020.0329.

Changes in the epidemiology and management of bacterial infections in cirrhosis

  • 1Unit of Internal Medicine and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy


Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to develop infections because of immune dysfunction, changes in microbiome and increase in bacterial translocation from the gut to systemic circulation. Bacterial infections can worse the clinical course of the disease, triggering the development of complications such as acute kidney injury, hepatic encephalopathy, organ failures and acute on chronic liver failure. In recent years, the spread of multi drug resistant bacteria made more challenging the management of infections in patients with cirrhosis. Hence, the mortality rate associated to sepsis is increasing in these patients. Therefore, the optimization of the management of infections has a high priority in cirrhosis. Herein we reviewed the recent changes in the epidemiology and the management of bacterial infections in patients with liver cirrhosis.


Sepsis; Liver transplantation; Septic shock; Antimicrobial stewardship
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