Yonsei Med J.  2021 Jul;62(7):584-592. 10.3349/ymj.2021.62.7.584.

Neutralizing Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Korean Patients Who Have Recovered from COVID-19

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea
  • 2Department of Microbiology, Institute for Viral Diseases, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) have been considered effective in preventing and treating viral infections. However, until now, the duration and clinical implications of antibody-mediated nature immunity in Koreans have remained unknown. Therefore, we examined NAbs levels and clinical characteristics in recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.
Materials and Methods
Blood samples were collected from 143 adult patients who had been diagnosed with and had recovered from COVID-19 from February to March in 2020 at a tertiary-care university-affiliated hospital in Daegu, Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to analyze NAb titers. Individualized questionnaires were used to identify patient clinical information.
Results
The median number of days from symptom onset to the blood collection date was 109.0 (104.0; 115.0). The NAb titers ranged from 10 to 2560. The median NAb titer value was 40. Of the 143 patients, 68 (47.6%) patients had NAb titers ≥80, and 31 (21.7%) patients had NAb titers ≥160. The higher the age or disease severity, the higher the NAb titer. In univariate logistic regression, statistically significant predictors of high NAb titers (≥80) were age, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, dyspnea, and disease severity (p<0.05). Multivariable logistic regression showed that age ≥50 years (p=0.013) and moderate or higher disease severity (p<0.001) were factors associated with high NAb titers (≥80). None of the patients had reinfection of COVID-19.
Conclusion
All recovered patients were found to have NAbs regardless of the NAb titers maintained by natural immunity. Age and disease severity during COVID-19 infection were associated with high NAb titers.

Keyword

COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; neutralizing antibodies; immunity; neutralization assay
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